The bait thermometer


The temperature has been up and down like a yo-yo over the last few weeks, anything from seriously sub-zero up to a balmy double figures.

Fish, being cold-blooded, are the same temperature as the water they swim in, so even small changes have a massive effect on them.

Whereas warm-blooded animals need to eat more when it is cold, to generate heat, the opposite is true for fish in our rivers and stillwaters.

Therefore, having a rough idea of the water temperature and whether it is rising or falling can have a massive impact on the baits you use. Even a change of 0.1ºC can make a difference to your catches.

Most of the time you won’t even need a thermometer to make your bait choice as if you keep an eye on what’s going on around you the indicators are there to see.

You should be aware that the air temperature is not necessarily a reflection of the water temperature.

For example, a warm day after several snowy ones will see the snow melt and water temperatures plummet.

It might be pleasant to fish, but your chances of catching are reduced because of the colder water. Conversely, a frosty day after several mild ones might yield surprisingly good results.

My bait thermometer has been put together to give you a guide to what baits to use, and when.



Once the water temperature drops this low, sport can be tough as carp will be eating very little, but on well stocked venues with the right bait you will still catch. This is the time to dig out the really bright baits – yellow, pink and white are my favourites – and pump up the flavours by using dips.

Keep your feed to the bare minimum. Often, just the hookbait is enough, as long as you are on fish, and it pays to search the swim by casting around until you find them. While you can catch carp when the temperature is this low, great sport can be had with more cold water-tolerant species, like roach, chub and ide, so it might pay to think about targeting these species instead.


Carp can be caught, but don’t expect to bag-up. Consider fishing for roach, chub and ide instead for a great day’s sport.


Super-bright mini-boilies, hair-rigged corn and bread discs are all really visual and work well for carp in the cold. ‘Blown’ pellets, that have a light colour, can also work, but remember to rely on the pulling power of the hookbait and keep feed to an absolute minimum.



From mid-November until late spring you’re likely to be confronted with water temperature in this range.

Encouraging the fish to feed confidently is what it is all about, and that means getting what you feed, and how much, spot-on. Single hookbaits will catch, but not enough to bag-up, and feeding too much will soon kill a swim so start off with a small amount of feed and keep it going in regularly.


Carp sport can be very good when the temperature is rising, and bream are another species that are quite cold-water tolerant.


‘Live baits’ such as maggots and worms are my first choices. Chopped worm is an exceptional attractor and will keep fish in the swim looking for food. Maggots come a close second, but don’t go overboard on the feed.

A couple of pints is enough to catch a big bag of carp.

If boilies are your thing then look for birdfood-based ones that are easy to digest, and consider using 10mm baits.




I call this the ‘Goldilocks zone’ for carp and most coarse fish. The temperature is neither so cold that it will stop the fish feeding, or so hot that they will start laying up and basking. Most venues will be in this range from about May until November.

I normally switch to dark-coloured baits at these water temperatures as the fish are going to be very active and aware of their surroundings, so a bright bait won’t be needed to attract them.


Carp, bream and tench will be feeding hard in this range, so the Method feeder works really well, and it can pay to bait heavily.


Pellets are my number one choice. The fish will be feeding hard and coarse pellets are the ideal food for them. For bigger carp, fishmeal based boilies work exceptionally well in this temperature range.



Carp, tench and barbel love warm water, but once the water gets this warm its capacity to hold oxygen drops massively, and it can be this instead that stops the fish from feeding. Often the carp will be basking on the top, enjoying the sun’s warmth on their backs. This is when surface fishing, the pellet waggler and fishing with zig rigs – in fact, any method that presents a bait up in the water – really comes into its own.


Carp on the surface and up in the water, also great tench sport early and late in the day.


Floating pellets and dog biscuits, bread crust and Zig Bugs all work well for fishing just below or on the surface. If I am fishing on the bottom then I will normally switch to particle baits, such as sweetcorn, as this passes through the fish very quickly.



Obviously, most of us will have no idea what the water temperature is going to be before we go fishing, but we can collect a lot of clues from the weather forecast and make a pretty good prediction.

Most TV and radio reports are not precise enough. Much better are forecasts for your local area on websites such as MetCheck.

I have several weather Apps on my phone and the one I tend to use the most often is called WindGuru, because this gives a very precise and reliable forecast.

First, look at the day and night time temperatures. A big difference between these figures normally means the water will chill slightly at night, which will make the fishing harder.

Similar day and night temperatures offer much better prospects.

Next, look to see if the temperature each day is going up or down in the days leading up to your session. This will tell you the temperature trend – rising temperatures, especially in winter, mean the fishing will be better.

When you get to the bank, take the water temperature with a thermometer, and check it regularly to see if it is rising or falling. Most good tackle shops will stock both the older brass thermometers and the latest digital versions.

I prefer the greater accuracy digital variety. Used while I am fishing, this will tell me if the temperature is rising or falling.

Temperatures that are rising, even if only by a fraction of a degree, will mean the fish will be more receptive to feeding and you can use more bait.

Understanding a fish's taste


The next time you hook a bait remember one thing – the fish you’re trying to catch will probably be able to taste the metal it’s made from!

To help you understand this amazing ability, in this feature I’m explaining all about a fish’s sense of taste…

How fish taste

Some people find it difficult to separate the senses of taste and smell. After all, as fish live in water, surely taste and smell are the same thing?

Well, the fact is the two senses are different.

A fish has a very well developed sense of smell located inside its nostril. A fish also uses an array of taste buds to taste things in its environment.

Most taste buds on a fish are located on the lips, the roof of the mouth, gill arches and barbels but not, funnily enough, on the tongue.

Measuring just one 50,000th of 1mm, these microscopic sensors are tiny bumps that poke through the fish’s skin and protective mucus.

Taste buds can be triggered when they touch things, so the sense of taste is used on things the fish has picked up in its mouth or bumped into.

The sensitive tip is the bit that reacts to specific chemicals.

Here's how a taste bud works. The tiny receptor is just one 50,000th of 1mm where it pokes through the skin. When it tastes some food and passes the information to the fish's sensory system, a feeding response is triggered.

Here's how a taste bud works. The tiny receptor is just one 50,000th of 1mm where it pokes through the skin. When it tastes some food and passes the information to the fish's sensory system, a feeding response is triggered.

These taste buds, like ours, are sensitive to sweet, sour, salt and bitter chemicals. A fish’s taste buds are particularly sensitive to acidic tasting chemicals but their sensitivity to sweet and salt is generally less than ours.

Taste buds are also sensitive to the same chemicals as the fish’s sense of smell. So amino acids, bile acids and sugars all trigger the taste bud and tell the fish what they have found is food.

Betaine, for instance, an additive used by specimen carp anglers and which is naturally found in fishmeal, is one of several chemicals that trigger a strong response from the taste buds, so sparking a robust feeding response.

Baits which give off chemicals which trigger both senses of smell and taste will also provoke a strong feeding response.

This explains why fishmeal-based pellets, pastes and boilies are so effective – they have a smell and taste fish are massively stimulated by.

A lot of fish also have taste buds on their bodies. Scaleless fish like catfish have taste buds all over their bodies. Simply bumping into something can allow the fish to taste it.

Carp have taste buds scattered all over their head, barbels and on their fins. These body taste buds don’t release the strongest signal but they are good enough for a fish to know it’s bumped into something edible.

The taste buds which give off the strongest response are in and around the mouth.

The taste filter

Cyprinid fishes, like carp and roach, also possess a fleshy, muscular area on the roof of their mouths, called the palatal organ, which is covered in millions of taste buds.

When a fish sucks in food it uses this organ at the back of their mouth to taste it.

As soon as the palatal organ touches and tastes something edible, it automatically grips the particle of food.

With the edible stuff held tightly, the fish is free to reject the non-edible wreckage by blowing it out of their mouth. Edible particles are then swallowed.

If stones are sucked in with the food the palatal organ holds these while the edible particles are swallowed before blowing out the unwelcome stones.

It is no coincidence the pharyngeal teeth that mash up the food are located right next to this area. Once food has been filtered, it’s passed straight into the pharynx to be crunched up.

The palatal organ is probably the main reason why carp were once thought to be almost uncatchable and why the advent of the hair-rig has had such a big impact on the number of carp that are caught. Let me explain.

Carp have a very sensitive palatal organ, a large mouth and a strong exhale.

If such a fish sucked up a bait placed directly on the hook and tasted the metal the hook was made from on its palatal organ, they would reject the bait and easily blow it out of their mouth before the angler had any indication of a bite.

However, with a hair-rig the bare hook is free to prick the fish on its way out of its mouth as the fish tries to get rid of the bait, this massively increases the number of hook ups.

Scientific research has even shown that the sensitivity varies within a species – different strains of carp will have differing preferences for food.

One scientific study showed that European carp have a sweeter tooth than Asian carp.

Fish will also learn that particular tastes are associated with food and can develop a taste for unusual flavours not found in the wild.


Understanding undertow

Did you know that stillwaters, lakes, meres, estate lakes and even commercial fisheries are rarely absolutely still? When the wind blows strange things happen to the water underneath the surface...

Even the faintest breeze can have an affect on the lake itself because, like Newton once said, for every reaction there is an opposite reaction.

So, the wind blowing over the surface of any lake anywhere is bound to affect the water immediately underneath those moving air particles and that affect is to create water movement. In other words, the dreaded undertow.

Everone who has ever floatfished a stillwater when it's windy will have, at some point, suffered from the affect of undertow.... those times when your float willl not stay still and keeps drifting through the swim making presentation really awkward, but worse still, makes your bait move unnaturally.

Here's you'll find out a whole lot more about undertow, what happens under the water, how it works and what to do to beat it and carry on catching even in the strongest wind...


a Surface water movement direction

b Wind direction

c The water slams into the end of the lake and is returned along the lake bottom

d Frequently the strongest tow is found close in and weakens as you go further out

e On some waters, the wind pushes the water around the lake circles

f Undertow, most of the time, will generally return in the opposite direction to the wind

g Undertow direction


If you have tow moving in the opposite direction to wind, this is the ideal scenario as it makes it easier to keep that bait still. Surface water movement is counteracted by tow along the lake’s bottom, so if you put your shot in a bulk in this area it will hold steadily in the swim.


When the wind and tow are in the same direction you get presentation problems. With the extra ‘push’ your float will scurry through the swim far too quickly, providing poor presentation. You might pick off the odd fi sh with the bait moving, but you really need to slow that bait down and present it still. It really is important to do this and having line on the bottom can secure your bait.


Undertow explained

Imagine you are pole fishing on a lake and your float is moving against the direction the wind is going. What’s going on here, then? (diagram, left) Well, it’s the undertow! When you have wind blowing against the lake this encourages the surface water to run in a particular direction. And then, when it reaches the far bank, currents are transferred to the bottom, so what happens is that the currents go back in a reverse direction, circulating water within the lake.

Remember, it’s not always fixed either, with currents and tow moving in different ways, sometimes even in circular fashion like a tumble dryer. And before all this talk of circulating currents puts you off, remember that undertow is a good thing, as water movement introduces oxygen into the water, encouraging fish to feed.

Beating undertow when fishing a waggler...

Although this is near impossible, there are a few things you can do to slow your rig right down whenever fishing in a strong wind and equally strong undertow...

Sinking your mainline between float and rod tip helps. To do this either cast further than you require, dip the rod tip under the water and wind the rig back really quickly to force the line under the surface. Alternatively, cast out, straighten your line, dip the rod tip right under the surface and strike the rod upwards quite sharply.

Using a very long waggler helps too as this ensures that your line is positioned further under the surface.

Fishing overdepth can slow your float down dramatically too, but choose your bait wisely as heavy baits can become snagged on underwater blanket weed. One of the best baits is a single caster, set so that the hook is worked right inside the bait, ensuring that the hook point doesn't show.

Anchoring the rig to the lake bed also helps. Fish overdepth and add a No8 or two onto the hooklength so that the shot drags along the bottom, slowing the passage of the float down. To do this correctly you'll need to use a straight peacock waggler as this will have enough buoyancy in the tip to keep the float above water when the shot trundle along the bottom.

If all else fails...

Get your feeder rod out and start legering instead!

Inside a fish...

One of the most encouraging traits of modern fishing is the greater interest anglers have in looking after the fish they catch.

But to ensure the fish you catch are released fit and strong, here is the definitive guide to a fish's internal organs so you can avoid causing any accidental damage.


1 - Gills

Gills of fish are for breathing. The gills sit behind the gill cover and, in a healthy fish, appear a bright red colour. The gills are extremely efficient at extracting oxygen from water allowing the fish to function normally. They can extract over 80% of the oxygen in the water passing over them (average person is around 4%). This efficiency comes at a price however. To get the oxygen in, the tissue is very thin, typically just seven thousandths of a millimetre. This makes them  very fragile so the gill cover protects them from damage. Rough handling can easily damage them so anglers should try and avoid touching or handling a fish around the gills. The oxygen the fish extracts is used to ‘burn’ the food it has digested to provide the energy to survive.

2 - Swim bladder

This organ stores gas inside the fish. Its main function is to counterbalance the weight of the rest of the fish’s body. This means the fish doesn’t have to swim to stay in the water column. It effectively makes the fish neutrally buoyant. This means the fins can be used to control position with slow precise movement rather than constantly having to work to keep itself off the bottom.

3 - Weberian Ossicles

These are found only in the carp-like fish. They are bone extensions of the spine and connect the swim bladder to the fish’s ears. This connection means that the fish can hear a much wider range of sound frequencies. Fish like perch and pike don’t have these and so have less effective hearing.

4 - Ears

The ears of fish are internal with no connection to the outside world. The reason for this is simply that they don’t need to. Sound travels much better in water compared to air so the sound easily passes into the fish where their ears can detect it. Fish hear much lower pitch sounds than people but are not as good at hearing high pitched sounds. You should remember this when you’re trampling about on the bank or banging in bank sticks!

5 - Heart

This is a blood pump, just like in people. In fish, blood leaves the heart and goes directly to the gills. So when the blood arrives at the gills it is at high pressure and flowing fast. This helps to make the gills efficient in carrying oxygen and food, as well as transporting waste chemicals. The blood then travels away from the gills carrying oxygen to other body organs. However, it also means that if the gills are damaged the blood loss is quite rapid – so avoid handling fish near the gills. The heart sits under the gills usually in the V-shape formed between the two gill covers. This location ensures the heart doesn’t have to pump blood far to get to the gills.

6 - Brain

Fish brains are not massive but perfectly functional for what the fish needs. They are particularly well developed for processing sensory information such as vision, smell and sounds.

7 - Liver

The liver of most of our coarse fish is usually quite big and combines the liver and pancreas together. This organ regulates and processes the digested food. It can also break down harmful chemicals. In coarse fish it is usually connected closely with the intestine. If it gets damaged it means the fish can’t process food properly and they can waste away and die. In coarse fish fed on trout pellets it can also get quite fatty. As yet however, there is no real evidence that this does the fish any harm.

8 - Stomach and Intestine

Predatory fish have stomachs to process the ingested prey. Fish like carp and roach don’t have a true stomach and just have a long intestine. This is because they feed more frequently than predators and their natural food often comes in smaller bits. This means they don’t need a stomach to start the digestion process. Food travels down the gut and is soaked with digestive chemicals to break it down. It’s then absorbed by the intestine and transported by blood to the liver or is stored for later use.

9 - Kidney

A fish’s two kidneys are merged into one and sit right under the spine. The kidney’s main function is to act as a filter and is well developed in all freshwater fish. It basically filters the blood and allows the fish to get rid of all the water that leaks into its body across the gills and through the intestine. The rest of the outside skin of the fish is generally pretty watertight unless it gets damaged. If the kidney gets damaged by disease or pollution, the fish retains water and will bloat up because it can’t effectively get rid of the water.

10 - Spleen

A dark red organ usually located around the middle of the fish. This organ makes and stores blood and also helps to fight off infections.

11 - Gall Bladder

Produces bile which is secreted into the intestine to neutralise acid from the stomach and also helps digest fats in food. It is usually bright yellow or green depending on the colour of the bile it produces.


Understanding the weather


Weather can be the single biggest factor in deciding if you’ll have a good day’s fishing – or suffer a bad one.

Weather conditions will dictate if, when, and how hard the fish feed, and will also have a huge bearing on the comfort of the fisherman on the bank.

A wet or cold angler can’t be expected to enjoy his or her sport – even if the fish are biting well – but pick your day and plan your trip correctly and you’ll have a great time.

By following just a few simple rules you can turn a potential blank into a late season success to put the smile back on your face.

Weather forecasting

The weather is the number one topic of conversation for most UK citizens, but how many of us really know how to decipher the forecasts? Next time you see those big charts the weathermen use at the end of the television news, have a close look at the pressure – or synoptic – charts and interpret the ‘squiggly lines’ by looking out for the following.


Atmospheric pressure is the force of the air pressing down on the earth’s surface and this pressure has a direct influence on the weather we receive, depending on if it is increasing or decreasing.

Atmospheric pressure is measured in inches of mercury in a barometer, or in millibars (mb) on maps.

In this country, our air pressure is typically somewhere between 980mb (low) to 1030mb (high.)

Points of the same pressure can be joined up to form lines called isobars. These form rings around high and low pressure centres.


Isobars (squiggly lines) join areas of equal pressure, in the same way contours on a map join areas of equal height.

● An area of high pressure (an anti cyclone) means settled weather; an area of low pressure (or a depression) often delivers wind and rain.

● Wind direction generally parallels the isobars, travelling anti-clockwise round a ‘low’, and clockwise round a ‘high’ (the opposites apply in the southern hemisphere.) The closer the isobars on a weather chart, the stronger the winds.


The heavier lines with small triangles or semi-circles drawn on the leading edges indicate weather ‘fronts’ – a weather system that’s being pushed towards, or away from, the British Isles.

A cold front is the front edge of a colder air mass. It means cloud and a narrow band of heavy rain followed by colder temperatures. It is indicated on the weather charts by small black triangles. The triangles point in the direction that the front is moving.

A warm front – or the front edge of a warm air mass – generally means cloud and an extensive band of drizzle or heavy rain is on the way. It is indicated on the weather maps by black semi-circles that point in the direction the front is moving.


● Low pressure areas are more likely to produce clouds and rain.

● High pressure areas usually mean settled, sunny weather.

● The perfect time to fish most stillwaters in the UK is when a low pressure system is coming in from the Atlantic. This means it will be mild, windy, full of cloud and probably wet, due to the westerly or south-westerly air flow. If you see this weather pattern coming up, get out there because the fish will be getting their heads down to feed.

What forecast conditions mean at this time of year



SUN is good at this time of year as it will heat up the top layers and shallower marginal areas of a fishery.

Target these shallow areas in the afternoon when fish have moved into them to feed.



RAIN can be good if it is mild and warm and brought from either a westerly or south-westerly direction. It can add colour to the water and spark fish to feed.



or easterly winds are bad at this time of year, especially if they carry rain. They will send air (and water) temperatures tumbling, putting the fish off their food and making fishing uncomfortable for the angler. In these conditions try to find a sheltered swim with the wind off your back. Never fish at the end of a pool with a north or east wind blowing directly in your face. Water temperatures here will be the lowest in the lake.

Remember: The power of the wind (wind chill) can reduce air temperature by 10 degrees C or more.



A SUDDEN, hard overnight frost is likely to put fish off the feed. They may eat angler’s baits in the mid to late afternoon when they have warmed up or acclimatised. Look for the deepest (and warmest) swims to fish in frosty conditions.



OPINIONS are mixed as to whether fish are affected by thunderstorms. We here at IYCF have had some great fishing straight after the most violent thunderstorms. Remember you must be careful in electrical storms. Carbon is an excellent conductor of electricity and you should never use or hold a pole or rod during thunder and lightning storms.



PROVIDED you have proper clothing and shelter, snow can be good at this time of year. Snow can indicate either a slight rise or fall in air temperature. Snow following a sustained period of frost indicates rising temperatures that could switch the fish into feeding. They have to feed sometime – even in cold weather.

Photographing a good fish you’ve caught in the snow, will also give you a souvenir you’ll never forget.

Old sayings: Is there anything in them?

TRUE: Red sky at night, shepherd’s delight. Red sky in morning, shepherds warning. Weather fronts often approach the UK from the west, so a red sky at night means it’s clear to the west (you can see the sun going down) and the cloud is clearing from the east. A red sky in the morning illuminates clouds to the west, so predicting bad weather.

TRUE: Mackerel sky and mares’ tails make tall ships carry low sails. The build-up of cirrocumulus cloud (mackerel sky) can often indicate a front approaching, carrying wind and rain.

TRUE: When the wind is in the west, the fish bite the best. When the wind is in the south, it blows the bait into the fishes mouth. When the wind is in the east, the fishes bite the least. When the wind is in the north the fish don’t go forth. South and west winds are warm and mild. North and east are cold and put coarse fish off the feed and make them lethargic.

TRUE: When smoke descends, good weather ends. When a low pressure front is coming, bringing rain, smoke from chimneys will fall.

FALSE: If cows lay down in the fields, it’s going to rain. Rubbish. They’re just tired and chewing the cud!

Reading the clouds

WATCHING the sky can give you a great indication of what kind of weather to expect – if you know what to look for.

The kind of clouds above you can accurately tell you what to expect. Here’s the IYCF guide to clouds, and their meaning.


STRATUS This is white and basically looks like fog. It can produce a fine, penetrating drizzle. If it forms overnight, then it should clear for a fine day.


This is white and basically looks like fog. It can produce a fine, penetrating drizzle. If it forms overnight, then it should clear for a fine day.

CUMULONIMBUS Towering, vertical, dark, anvil shaped at the top. Heavy showers, thunder, lightning and hailstones ahead.


Towering, vertical, dark, anvil shaped at the top. Heavy showers, thunder, lightning and hailstones ahead.

STRATOCUMULUS Dark, lumpy, mottled sky with occasional glimpses of sunlight through the gaps. Expect light rain soon.


Dark, lumpy, mottled sky with occasional glimpses of sunlight through the gaps. Expect light rain soon.

CUMULUS White and fluffy with dark undersides. Normally large and crowded together. This means showers are possible.


White and fluffy with dark undersides. Normally large and crowded together. This means showers are possible.

MID-LEVEL CLOUDS – 7,000 TO 17,000FT

ALTOCUMULUS Similar to cirrocumulus, but heaped higher and of a greyer colour – indicates occasional rain or snow.


Similar to cirrocumulus, but heaped higher and of a greyer colour – indicates occasional rain or snow.

ALTOSTRATUS A faint haze or sheet of cloud across the sky with sun visible faintly through it – may indicate light rain.


A faint haze or sheet of cloud across the sky with sun visible faintly through it – may indicate light rain.

NIMBOSTRATUS A low, dark sheet of cloud that blocks out or diffuses the sun behind it – prolonged rain within a few hours


A low, dark sheet of cloud that blocks out or diffuses the sun behind it – prolonged rain within a few hours


CIRRUS White and wispy, formed by ice crystals – these occur in fair weather but indicate a front approaching in 12-24 hours.


White and wispy, formed by ice crystals – these occur in fair weather but indicate a front approaching in 12-24 hours.

CIRROCUMULUS Known by many anglers as ‘mackerel sky’ these elongated puffs or strips of cloud signify that rain is on the way.


Known by many anglers as ‘mackerel sky’ these elongated puffs or strips of cloud signify that rain is on the way.

CIRROSTRATUS White, wispy, almost invisible except for a halo around the sun which indicates increased moisture in the air and rain on the way.


White, wispy, almost invisible except for a halo around the sun which indicates increased moisture in the air and rain on the way.


Stay warm in the cold